In this Wednesday, March 4, 2015 photo, smoke rises as the Iraqi army, supported by volunteers, battles Islamic State extremists outside Tikrit, 80 miles (130 kilometers) north of Baghdad, Iraq. Iranian-backed Shiite militias and Sunni tribes have joined Iraq’s military in a major operation to retake Tikrit from the Islamic State group, while the U.S. led coalition has remained on the sidelines. (AP Photo)