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PTSD tied to higher risk of an early stroke, according to a massive new study of post-9/11 veterans
(Reuters Health) - Young adults who develop PTSD may be more likely to have a stroke by the time they are middle aged, a study of U.S. veterans suggests.
Researchers followed almost one million young and middle-aged veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan for more than a decade, starting when they were 30 years old, on average, and had no history of stroke. Overall, 29% had been diagnosed with PTSD.
During the study, 766 people had a transient ischemic attack, or brief "mini-stroke," and another 1,877 people had a stroke.
Veterans with PTSD were 61% more likely than others to have a mini-stroke and 36% more likely to have a stroke, the study found.
"This trend is very concerning given the devastating impact stroke has on young patients and their families, many of whom struggle to cope with long-term disability, depression, and economic loss during their most productive years," said study leader Lindsey Rosman of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in Chapel Hill.
"Because PTSD is a potentially treatable psychological condition, understanding the relationship between the two conditions may have important implications for improving stroke prevention and treatment in young and middle-aged adults," Rosman said by email.
While PTSD has been shown to increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in older adults, this is the first study to show a link between trauma-induced stress disorders and the risk of stroke and mini-strokes in young and middle-aged adults, researchers note in the journal Stroke.
Most strokes occur when a clot blocks an artery carrying blood to the brain, known as an ischemic stroke. About 10% to 14% of ischemic strokes occur in adults ages 18 to 45, the study team notes.
Most of the veterans in the current study were men, and the majority were white.
There was a stronger link between PTSD and stroke in men than in women.
Even after accounting for behaviors that can raise stroke risk, like smoking, getting little exercise and substance abuse, researchers still found an increased stroke risk associated with PTSD.
While the study focused on PTSD among military veterans, it's possible that people with PTSD from other experiences like natural disasters, gun violence or sexual assault might also have an increased stroke risk, the study authors conclude.
"We don't fully understand how PTSD in young adults increases their risk of developing stroke at an early age, but multiple biological and behavioral pathways are likely involved," Rosman said.
For example, prolonged exposure to intense psychological stress may lead to chronic inflammation that eventually contributes to stroke. Stress is also associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet and substance abuse, which may increase risk for early stroke.
With PTSD, people may develop long-lasting symptoms of anxiety, avoidance, hypervigilance, anger, irritability, flashbacks and nightmares. This can happen just as easily for non-combat traumas and may lead to unhealthy behaviors that raise the risk of stroke among civilians, Rosman said.
The study focused on younger veterans, and results might be different for older veterans or other older adults with more traditional risk factors for stroke like heart rhythm disorders or heart failure, the research team notes.
"The causes, characteristics and consequences of stroke for young patients will likely differ from those for the 'typical' stroke patient who is much older and more likely to have other medical conditions," Rosman said. "We can't just apply a one-size fits all strategy to address this problem."
SOURCE: https://bit.ly/31HUjdO Stroke, online October 17, 2019.
For one veteran who fought through the crossfires of German heavy machine guns in the D-Day landings, receiving a Congressional Gold Medal on behalf of his service and that of his World War II comrades would be "quite meaningful."
Bills have been introduced in the House and Senate to award the Army Rangers of World War II the medal, the highest civilian award bestowed by the United States, along with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
BANGKOK (Reuters) - Defense Secretary Mark Esper expressed confidence on Sunday in the U.S. military justice system's ability to hold troops to account, two days after President Donald Trump pardoned two Army officers accused of war crimes in Afghanistan.
Trump also restored the rank of a Navy SEAL platoon commander who was demoted for actions in Iraq.
Asked how he would reassure countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq in the wake of the pardons, Esper said: "We have a very effective military justice system."
"I have great faith in the military justice system," Esper told reporters during a trip to Bangkok, in his first remarks about the issue since Trump issued the pardons.
On a military base, a black flag is bad news. That means it's too hot outside to do anything strenuous, so training and missions are put off until conditions improve.
As the climate changes, there could be plenty more black flag days ahead, especially in Florida, a new analysis from the Union of Concerned Scientists found. America's military bases could see an average of an extra month of dangerously hot days by mid-century. In Florida, they could quadruple.
Pentagon data shows heat-related illnesses and injuries are on the rise in every branch of the military. Last year, nearly 2,800 troops suffered heatstroke or heat exhaustion, a roughly 50 percent jump from 2014.
"I think most of us, if we hear there are tens of thousands of cases of heat stress in our troops every year, our minds would go to where they were deployed," said Kristy Dahl, a senior climate scientist at UCS and the lead author of the study. "But more than 90% of the military cases of heatstroke happened right here at home."
BANGKOK (Reuters) - The United States and South Korea said on Sunday they will postpone upcoming military drills in an effort to bolster a stalled peace push with North Korea, even as Washington denied the move amounted to another concession to Pyongyang.
The drills, known as the Combined Flying Training Event, would have simulated air combat scenarios and involved an undisclosed number of warplanes from both the United States and South Korea.
An opening ceremony will be held Monday on Hawaii island for a military exercise with China that will involve about 100 People's Liberation Army soldiers training alongside U.S. Army counterparts.
This comes after Adm. Phil Davidson, head of U.S. Indo-Pacific Command, spoke on Veterans Day at Punchbowl cemetery about the "rules-based international order" that followed U.S. victory in the Pacific in World War II, and China's attempts to usurp it.
Those American standards "are even more important today," Davidson said, "as malicious actors like the Communist Party of China seek to redefine the international order through corruption, malign cyber activities, intellectual property theft, restriction of individual liberties, military coercion and the direct attempts to override other nations' sovereignty."