The New York Public Library

So says West Point historian Samuel Watson, an expert on the 19th century U.S. Army. Here, I’ll let him explain: “The Army’s most important adaptations to Indian warfare were strategic — political and economic — rather than tactical or operational. It relied on patient diplomacy backed by operational persistence and economic warfare . . . . The shift from fully sharing civilian hatred of Indians before 1815 to a muted sympathy for them by the 1830s was the Army’s greatest single adaptation to these conflicts.”

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