AP Photo/Las Cruces Sun-News, Norm Dettlaff

The scent of the bomb shelter's dirt walls and floor lingers in Ruth Itamura's memory.

"I remember the smell of the ground," the retired Vigo County School Corp. teacher and counselor recalled last week.

Ruth's family and fellow Hawaii residents were ordered to build the emergency shelters after Japanese forces struck Pearl Harbor in a surprise attack on a sunny Sunday morning, Dec. 7, 1941. The offensive killed 2,335 American service members and 68 civilians, and devastated the U.S. naval fleet based around the island of Oahu. The assault drew the United States into World War II.

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